Book 10 Proposition 25
Τὸ ὑπὸ μέσων δυνάμει μόνον συμμέτρων εὐθειῶν περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἤτοι ῥητὸν ἢ μέσον ἐστίν. Ὑπὸ γὰρ μέσων δυνάμει μόνον συμμέτρων εὐθειῶν τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ ὀρθογώνιον περιεχέσθω τὸ ΑΓ: λέγω, ὅτι τὸ ΑΓ ἤτοι ῥητὸν ἢ μέσον ἐστίν. Ἀναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ τετράγωνα τὰ ΑΔ, ΒΕ: μέσον ἄρα ἐστὶν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΑΔ, ΒΕ. καὶ ἐκκείσθω ῥητὴ ἡ ΖΗ, καὶ τῷ μὲν ΑΔ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΖΗ παραβεβλήσθω ὀρθογώνιον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΗΘ πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΖΘ, τῷ δὲ ΑΓ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΘΜ παραβεβλήσθω ὀρθογώνιον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΜΚ πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΘΚ, καὶ ἔτι τῷ ΒΕ ἴσον ὁμοίως παρὰ τὴν ΚΝ παραβεβλήσθω τὸ ΝΛ πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΚΛ: ἐπ' εὐθείας ἄρα εἰσὶν αἱ ΖΘ, ΘΚ, ΚΛ. ἐπεὶ οὖν μέσον ἐστὶν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΑΔ, ΒΕ, καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ μὲν ΑΔ τῷ ΗΘ, τὸ δὲ ΒΕ τῷ ΝΛ, μέσον ἄρα καὶ ἑκάτερον τῶν ΗΘ, ΝΛ. καὶ παρὰ ῥητὴν τὴν ΖΗ παράκειται: ῥητὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἑκατέρα τῶν ΖΘ, ΚΛ καὶ ἀσύμμετρος τῇ ΖΗ μήκει. καὶ ἐπεὶ σύμμετρόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΔ τῷ ΒΕ, σύμμετρον ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΗΘ τῷ ΝΛ. καί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΗΘ πρὸς τὸ ΝΛ, οὕτως ἡ ΖΘ πρὸς τὴν ΚΛ: σύμμετρος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΘ τῇ ΚΛ μήκει. αἱ ΖΘ, ΚΛ ἄρα ῥηταί εἰσι μήκει σύμμετροι: ῥητὸν ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΖΘ, ΚΛ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΔΒ τῇ ΒΑ, ἡ δὲ ΞΒ τῇ ΒΓ, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ, οὕτως ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΞ. ἀλλ' ὡς μὲν ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ, οὕτως τὸ ΔΑ πρὸς τὸ ΑΓ: ὡς δὲ ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΞ, οὕτως τὸ ΑΓ πρὸς τὸ ΓΞ: ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΔΑ πρὸς τὸ ΑΓ, οὕτως τὸ ΑΓ πρὸς τὸ ΓΞ. ἴσον δέ ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΑΔ τῷ ΗΘ, τὸ δὲ ΑΓ τῷ ΜΚ, τὸ δὲ ΓΞ τῷ ΝΛ: ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΗΘ πρὸς τὸ ΜΚ, οὕτως τὸ ΜΚ πρὸς τὸ ΝΛ: ἔστιν ἄρα καὶ ὡς ἡ ΖΘ πρὸς τὴν ΘΚ, οὕτως ἡ ΘΚ πρὸς τὴν ΚΛ: τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΖΘ, ΚΛ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΘΚ. ῥητὸν δὲ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΖΘ, ΚΛ: ῥητὸν ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΘΚ: ῥητὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΘΚ. καὶ εἰ μὲν σύμμετρός ἐστι τῇ ΖΗ μήκει, ῥητόν ἐστι τὸ ΘΝ: εἰ δὲ ἀσύμμετρός ἐστι τῇ ΖΗ μήκει, αἱ ΚΘ, ΘΜ ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι: μέσον ἄρα τὸ ΘΝ. τὸ ΘΝ ἄρα ἤτοι ῥητὸν ἢ μέσον ἐστίν. ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΘΝ τῷ ΑΓ: τὸ ΑΓ ἄρα ἤτοι ῥητὸν ἢ μέσον ἐστίν. Τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ μέσων δυνάμει μόνον συμμέτρων, καὶ τὰ ἑξῆς.
The rectangle contained by medial straight lines commensurable in square only is either rational or medial. For let the rectangle AC be contained by the medial straight lines AB, BC which are commensurable in square only; I say that AC is either rational or medial. For on AB, BC let the squares AD, BE be described; therefore each of the squares AD, BE is medial. Let a rational straight line FG be set out, to FG let there be applied the rectangular parallelogram GH equal to AD, producing FH as breadth, to HM let there be applied the rectangular parallelogram MK equal to AC, producing HK as breadth, and further to KN let there be similarly applied NL equal to BE, producing KL as breadth; therefore FH, HK, KL are in a straight line. Since then each of the squares AD, BE is medial, and AD is equal to GH, and BE to NL, therefore each of the rectangles GH, NL is also medial. And they are applied to the rational straight line FG; therefore each of the straight lines FH, KL is rational and incommensurable in length with FG. [X. 22] And, since AD is commensurable with BE, therefore GH is also commensurable with NL. And, as GH is to NL, so is FH to KL; [VI. 1] therefore FH is commensurable in length with KL. [X. 11] Therefore FH, KL are rational straight lines commensurable in length; therefore the rectangle FH, KL is rational. [X. 19] And, since DB is equal to BA, and OB to BC, therefore, as DB is to BC, so is AB to BO. But, as DB is to BC, so is DA to AC, [VI. 1] and, as AB is to BO, so is AC to CO; [id.] therefore, as DA is to AC, so is AC to CO. But AD is equal to GH, AC to MK and CO to NL; therefore, as GH is to MK, so is MK to NL; therefore also, as FH is to HK, so is HK to KL; [VI. 1, V. 11] therefore the rectangle FH, KL is equal to the square on HK. [VI. 17] But the rectangle FH, KL is rational; therefore the square on HK is also rational. Therefore HK is rational. And, if it is commensurable in length with FG, HN is rational; [X. 19] but, if it is incommensurable in length with FG, KH, HM are rational straight lines commensurable in square only, and therefore HN is medial. [X. 21] Therefore HN is either rational or medial. But HN is equal to AC; therefore AC is either rational or medial.