# Book 11 Proposition 20

Ἐὰν στερεὰ γωνία ὑπὸ τριῶν γωνιῶν ἐπιπέδων περιέχηται, δύο ὁποιαιοῦν τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονές εἰσι πάντῃ μεταλαμβανόμεναι. Στερεὰ γὰρ γωνία ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α ὑπὸ τριῶν γωνιῶν ἐπιπέδων τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ, ΓΑΔ, ΔΑΒ περιεχέσθω: λέγω, ὅτι τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ, ΓΑΔ, ΔΑΒ γωνιῶν δύο ὁποιαιοῦν τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονές εἰσι πάντῃ μεταλαμβανόμεναι. Εἰ μὲν οὖν αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ, ΓΑΔ, ΔΑΒ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν, φανερόν, ὅτι δύο ὁποιαιοῦν τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονές εἰσιν. εἰ δὲ οὔ, ἔστω μείζων ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ, καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ γωνίᾳ ἐν τῷ διὰ τῶν ΒΑΓ ἐπιπέδῳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ, καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΑΔ ἴση ἡ ΑΕ, καὶ διὰ τοῦ Ε σημείου διαχθεῖσα ἡ ΒΕΓ τεμνέτω τὰς ΑΒ, ΑΓ εὐθείας κατὰ τὰ Β, Γ σημεῖα, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΔΒ, ΔΓ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΑΕ, κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΑΒ, δύο δυσὶν ἴσαι: καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ ἴση: βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΔΒ βάσει τῇ ΒΕ ἐστιν ἴση. καὶ ἐπεὶ δύο αἱ ΒΔ, ΔΓ τῆς ΒΓ μείζονές εἰσιν, ὧν ἡ ΔΒ τῇ ΒΕ ἐδείχθη ἴση, λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΔΓ λοιπῆς τῆς ΕΓ μείζων ἐστίν. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΑΕ, κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΑΓ, καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΓ βάσεως τῆς ΕΓ μείζων ἐστίν, γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ γωνίας τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΑΓ μείζων ἐστίν. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ ἴση: αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ, ΔΑΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ μείζονές εἰσιν. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ σύνδυο λαμβανόμεναι τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονές εἰσιν. Ἐὰν ἄρα στερεὰ γωνία ὑπὸ τριῶν γωνιῶν ἐπιπέδων περιέχηται, δύο ὁποιαιοῦν τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονές εἰσι πάντῃ μεταλαμβανόμεναι: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

If a solid angle be contained by three plane angles, any two, taken together in any manner, are greater than the remaining one. For let the solid angle at A be contained by the three plane angles BAC, CAD, DAB; I say that any two of the angles BAC, CAD, DAB, taken together in any manner, are greater than the remaining one. If now the angles BAC, CAD, DAB are equal to one another, it is manifest that any two are greater than the remaining one. But, if not, let BAC be greater, and on the straight line AB, and at the point A on it, let the angle BAE be constructed, in the plane through BA, AC, equal to the angle DAB; let AE be made equal to AD, and let BEC, drawn across through the point E, cut the straight lines AB, AC at the points B, C; let DB, DC be joined. Now, since DA is equal to AE, and AB is common, two sides are equal to two sides; and the angle DAB is equal to the angle BAE; therefore the base DB is equal to the base BE. [I. 4] And, since the two sides BD, DC are greater than BC, [I. 20] and of these DB was proved equal to BE, therefore the remainder DC is greater than the remainder EC. Now, since DA is equal to AE, and AC is common, and the base DC is greater than the base EC, therefore the angle DAC is greater than the angle EAC. [I. 25] But the angle DAB was also proved equal to the angle BAE; therefore the angles DAB, DAC are greater than the angle BAC. Similarly we can prove that the remaining angles also, taken together two and two, are greater than the remaining one.