# Book 9 Proposition 12

Ἐὰν ἀπὸ μονάδος ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον ὦσιν, ὑφ' ὅσων ἂν ὁ ἔσχατος πρώτων ἀριθμῶν μετρῆται, ὑπὸ τῶν αὐτῶν καὶ ὁ παρὰ τὴν μονάδα μετρηθήσεται. Ἔστωσαν ἀπὸ μονάδος ὁποσοιδηποτοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον οἱ Α, Β, Γ, Δ: λέγω, ὅτι ὑφ' ὅσων ἂν ὁ Δ πρώτων ἀριθμῶν μετρῆται, ὑπὸ τῶν αὐτῶν καὶ ὁ Α μετρηθήσεται. Μετρείσθω γὰρ ὁ Δ ὑπό τινος πρώτου ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ Ε: λέγω, ὅτι ὁ Ε τὸν Α μετρεῖ. μὴ γάρ: καί ἐστιν ὁ Ε πρῶτος, ἅπας δὲ πρῶτος ἀριθμὸς πρὸς ἅπαντα, ὃν μὴ μετρεῖ, πρῶτός ἐστιν: οἱ Ε, Α ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Ε τὸν Δ μετρεῖ, μετρείτω αὐτὸν κατὰ τὸν Ζ: ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Ζ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ὁ Α τὸν Δ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Γ μονάδας, ὁ Α ἄρα τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὁ Ε τὸν Ζ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν: ὁ ἄρα ἐκ τῶν Α, Γ ἴσος ἐστὶ τῷ ἐκ τῶν Ε, Ζ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Ε, ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Γ. οἱ δὲ Α, Ε πρῶτοι, οἱ δὲ πρῶτοι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι, οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἑπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον: μετρεῖ ἄρα ὁ Ε τὸν Γ. μετρείτω αὐτὸν κατὰ τὸν Η: ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Η πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν. ἀλλὰ μὴν διὰ τὸ πρὸ τούτου καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν. ὁ ἄρα ἐκ τῶν Α, Β ἴσος ἐστὶ τῷ ἐκ τῶν Ε, Η. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Ε, ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Β. οἱ δὲ Α, Ε πρῶτοι, οἱ δὲ πρῶτοι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι, οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας αὐτοῖς ἰσάκις ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἑπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον: μετρεῖ ἄρα ὁ Ε τὸν Β. μετρείτω αὐτὸν κατὰ τὸν Θ: ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Θ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Β πεποίηκεν. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Β πεποίηκεν: ὁ ἄρα ἐκ τῶν Ε, Θ ἴσος ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Α, ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Θ. οἱ δὲ Α, Ε πρῶτοι, οἱ δὲ πρῶτοι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι, οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἑπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον: μετρεῖ ἄρα ὁ Ε τὸν Α ὡς ἡγούμενος ἡγούμενον. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ οὐ μετρεῖ: ὅπερ ἀδύνατον. οὐκ ἄρα οἱ Ε, Α πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. σύνθετοι ἄρα. οἱ δὲ σύνθετοι ὑπὸ [πρώτου] ἀριθμοῦ τινος μετροῦνται. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Ε πρῶτος ὑπόκειται, ὁ δὲ πρῶτος ὑπὸ ἑτέρου ἀριθμοῦ οὐ μετρεῖται ἢ ὑφ' ἑαυτοῦ, ὁ Ε ἄρα τοὺς Α, Ε μετρεῖ: ὥστε ὁ Ε τὸν Α μετρεῖ. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν Δ: ὁ Ε ἄρα τοὺς Α, Δ μετρεῖ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι ὑφ' ὅσων ἂν ὁ Δ πρώτων ἀριθμῶν μετρῆται, ὑπὸ τῶν αὐτῶν καὶ ὁ Α μετρηθήσεται: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

If as many numbers as we please beginning from an unit be in continued proportion, by however many prime numbers the last is measured, the next to the unit will also be measured by the same. Let there be as many numbers as we please, A, B, C, D, beginning from an unit, and in continued proportion; I say that, by however many prime numbers D is measured, A will also be measured by the same. For let D be measured by any prime number E; I say that E measures A. For suppose it does not; now E is prime, and any prime number is prime to any which it does not measure; [VII. 29] therefore E, A are prime to one another. And, since E measures D, let it measure it according to F, therefore E by multiplying F has made D. Again, since A measures D according to the units in C, [IX. 11 and Por.] therefore A by multiplying C has made D. But, further, E has also by multiplying F made D; therefore the product of A, C is equal to the product of E, F. Therefore, as A is to E, so is F to C. [VII. 19] But A, E are prime, primes are also least, [VII. 21] and the least measure those which have the same ratio the same number of times, the antecedent the antecedent and the consequent the consequent; [VII. 20] therefore E measures C. Let it measure it according to G; therefore E by multiplying G has made C. But, further, by the theorem before this, A has also by multiplying B made C. [IX. 11 and Por.] Therefore the product of A, B is equal to the product of E, G. Therefore, as A is to E, so is G to B. [VII. 19] But A, E are prime, primes are also least, [VII. 21] and the least numbers measure those which have the same ratio with them the same number of times, the antecedent the antecedent and the consequent the consequent: [VII. 20] therefore E measures B. Let it measure it according to H; therefore E by multiplying H has made B. But further A has also by multiplying itself made B; [IX. 8] therefore the product of E, H is equal to the square on A. Therefore, as E is to A, so is A to H. [VII. 19] But A, E are prime, primes are also least, [VII. 21] and the least measure those which have the same ratio the same number of times, the antecedent the antecedent and the consequent the consequent; [VII. 20] therefore E measures A, as antecedent antecedent. But, again, it also does not measure it: which is impossible. Therefore E, A are not prime to one another. Therefore they are composite to one another. But numbers composite to one another are measured by some number. [VII. Def. 14] And, since E is by hypothesis prime, and the prime is not measured by any number other than itself, therefore E measures A, E, so that E measures A. [But it also measures D; therefore E measures A, D.]